- What is university climate?
Dr. Susan Rankin of Rankin & Associates Consulting, which is serving as the outside consultant for the University of Northern Colorado climate survey, defines university climate as, “the current attitudes, behaviors, standards and practices of employees and students of an institution.” The climate is often shaped through personal experiences, perceptions and institutional efforts. To clarify, climate is the temporal and changeable, while culture remains more entrenched. We must assess the climate in order to transform it, and our attempts to change climate will also lead to long-term cultural change at the University of Northern Colorado.
- Why is a positive climate important?
Dr. Rankin’s research maintains that positive personal experiences with university climate and positive perceptions of university climate generally equate to successful outcomes. Example successful outcomes include positive educational experiences and healthy identity development for students, productivity and sense of value for faculty and staff, and overall well-being for all.
- Why is the University of Northern Colorado conducting a climate survey?
The idea to conduct a university climate survey originated from interested students, staff and faculty and who believed data from such a survey might be useful in planning for the future and improving the University of Northern Colorado climate.
- Who will be conducting the survey?
After a review of potential vendors, a subcommittee of the Equity and Diversity Council selected Rankin & Associates to conduct the survey. The Campus Working Group (CWG) which includes a cross section of students, staff and faculty, is charged with conducting the survey, and Rankin & Associates reports directly to the CWG. Although the CWG will regularly update the University of Northern Colorado community about its progress, the committee—in consultation with Rankin & Associates—is solely responsible for the development, implementation and interpretation of the survey and its results. Dr. Susan Rankin (Rankin & Associates Consulting) is the consultant working directly with us on this project. Dr. Rankin is an emeritus faculty member of Education Policy Studies and College Student Affairs at The Pennsylvania State University and a senior research associate in the Center for the Study of Higher Education. She has extensive experience in institutional climate assessment and institutional climate transformation based on data-driven action and strategic planning. Dr. Rankin has conducted multi-location institutional climate studies at more than 150 institutions across the country. She developed and utilizes the Transformational Tapestry model as a research design for campus climate studies. The model is a “comprehensive, five-phase strategic model of assessment, planning and intervention. The model is designed to assist campus communities in conducting inclusive assessments of their institutional climate to better understand the challenges facing their respective communities.” (Rankin & Reason, 2008).
- Why was a non-University of Northern Colorado researcher selected for the project?
In reviewing efforts by other universities to conduct comprehensive climate studies, several best practices were identified. One was the need for external expertise in survey administration. The administration of a survey relating to a very sensitive subject like campus climate is likely to yield higher response rates and provide more credible findings if led by an independent, outside agency. Members of a university community may feel particularly inhibited to respond honestly to a survey administered by their own institution for fear of retaliation. Additionally, in-house researchers may have hopes and aspirations for the university and the larger community in which they work, and the external researcher does not carry similar personal investment in the University of Northern Colorado.
- How were the questions developed?
The consultant has administered climate assessments to more than 150 institutions across the nation and developed a repository of tested questions. To assist in contextualizing the survey for the University of Northern Colorado, and to capitalize on the many assessment efforts already undertaken, the Campus Working Group (CWG) was formed and consists of student, staff and faculty representatives from various constituent groups at the University of Northern Colorado . The committee is responsible for developing the survey questions. The team will review selected survey questions from the consultant’s tested collection, and will also include the University of Northern Colorado-specific questions which will be informed by the focus group results.
- Why do some demographic questions contain a very large number of response options?
It is important in campus climate research for survey participants to “see” themselves in response choices to prevent “othering” an individual or an individual’s characteristics. Some researchers maintain that assigning someone to the status of “other” is a form of marginalization and should be minimized, particularly in campus climate research which has an intended purpose of inclusiveness for the research study itself as well as for the long term outcomes. Along these lines, survey respondents will see a long list of possible choices for many demographic questions. However, it is reasonably impossible to include every possible choice to every question, but the goal is to reduce the number of respondents who must choose “other.”
- What is the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process for this study?
The primary investigator from the University of Northern Colorado for the IRB process is Matt Goetzel, Interim Director of Institutional Reporting and Analysis Services. An IRB application will be submitted for the project. IRB protocols provide additional measures of protection for individual participants as well as for the CWG and the University of Northern Colorado as a whole. Once the project is approved, the survey will be administered.
- How is a respondent’s confidentiality protected?
Confidentiality is vital to the success of campus climate research, particularly because sensitive and personal topics are discussed. While the survey cannot guarantee complete confidentiality because of the nature of multiple demographic questions, the consultant will take multiple precautionary measures to enhance individual confidentiality and the de-identification of data. No data already protected through regulation or policy (e.g., Social Security number, campus identification number, medical information) are obtained through the survey. In the event of any publication or presentation resulting from the assessment, no personally identifiable information will be shared.
Confidentiality in participating will be maintained to the highest degree permitted by the technology used (e.g., IP addresses will be stripped when the survey is submitted). No guarantees can be made regarding the interception of data sent via the Internet by any third parties; however, to avoid interception of data, the survey is run on a firewalled web server with forced 256-bit SSL security. In addition, the consultant and university will not report any group data for groups of fewer than five individuals, because those “small cell sizes” may be small enough to compromise confidentiality. For example, in some cases, presenting a response from an individual identified by race and gender may allow observers to identify that person; therefore, we will not report group data for small groups. Instead, the consultant and university will combine the groups or take other measures to eliminate any potential for demographic information to be identifiable. Additionally, any comments submitted in response to the survey will be separated at the time of submission to the consultant so they are not attributed to any individual or to any particular set of demographic characteristics. Identifiable information submitted in qualitative comments will be redacted, and the university will only receive these redacted comments.
Participation in the survey is completely voluntary, and participants do not have to answer any question— except the first positioning question (students, staff, faculty) —and can skip any other questions they consider to be uncomfortable. Paper and pencil surveys are also available and will be sent directly to the consultant.
Information in the introductory section of the survey will describe the manner in which confidentiality will be guaranteed, and additional communication to participants will provide expanded information on the nature of confidentiality, possible threats to confidentiality and procedures developed to ensure de-identification of data.
- What will be included in the final summary reports?
The consultant will provide a final report that will include: an executive summary; a report narrative of the findings based on cross tabulations selected by the consultant; frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations of quantitative data; and content analysis of the textual data. The reports provide high-level summaries of the findings and will identify themes found in the data. Generalizations for populations are limited to those groups or subgroups with response rates of at least 30%. The committee will review draft reports and provide feedback to the consultant prior to public release; no University of Northern Colorado community member, including senior administrators, will be able to edit any of the report’s findings. The final full report will be available to the University of Northern Colorado community.
- What protections are in place for storage of sensitive data, including for future
The University of Northern Colorado has worked with the consultant to develop a research data security description and protocol, which includes specific information on data encryption, the handling of personally identifiable information, physical security and a protocol for handling unlikely breaches of data security. The data from online participants will be submitted to a secure server hosted by the consultant. The survey is run on a firewalled web server with forced 256-bit SSL security and is stored on a SQL database that can only be accessed locally. The server itself may only be accessed using encrypted SSH connections originating from the local network. Rankin & Associates Consulting project coordinator Dr. Susan Rankin will have access to the raw data along with several Rankin & Associates data analysts. All Rankin & Associates analysts have CITI (Human Subjects) training and approval and have worked on similar projects for other institutions. The web server runs with the SE-Linux security extensions (that were developed by the NSA). The server is also in RAID to highly reduce the chance of any data loss due to hardware failure. The server performs a nightly security audit from data acquired via the system logs and notifies the administrators. The number of system administrators will be limited, and each will have had required background checks.
The consultant has conducted more than 150 institutional surveys and maintains an aggregate merged database. The data from the University of Northern Colorado project will be merged with all other existing climate data stored indefinitely on the consultant’s secure server. No institutional identifiers are included in the full merged data set held by the consultant. The raw unit-level data with institutional identifiers is kept on the server for six months and then destroyed. The paper and pencil surveys are returned to the consultant directly and kept in a locked file drawer in a locked office. The consultant destroys the paper and pencil responses after they are merged with the online data. The consultant will notify the committee chairs of any breach or suspected breach of data security of the consultant’s server.
The consultant will provide the University of Northern Colorado with a data file at the completion of the project.
- Why is this a population survey and not a sample survey?
The survey will be administered to all students, staff and faculty at the University of Northern Colorado. Climate exists in micro-climates, so creating opportunities to maximize participation is important as well as maximizing opportunities to reach minority populations. Along these lines, the consultant has recommended not using random sampling as we may “miss” particular populations where numbers are very small (e.g., Native American faculty). Since one goal of the project is inclusiveness and allowing invisible “voices” to be heard, random sampling is not used. In addition, randomized stratified sampling is not used because we do not have population data on most identities. For example, the University of Northern Colorado collects population data on gender and race/ethnicity, but not on disability status or sexual orientation. Therefore, a sample approach could miss many groups.
- What is the timeline?
This initiative is comprised of four phases. The first involves survey development (summer/fall 2015), the second includes seeking input from student, staff, and faculty from consultant led focus groups (spring 2016) to inform the survey, the third phase comprises the launch of the campus-wide survey (fall 2016), and the final phase will culminate with the reporting of results (late fall 2016/spring 2017).