Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Urinary tract infections are ones that occur in any organs that make up the urinary tract. The kidneys filter waste products from the blood and make urine. Ureters connect the kidney to the bladder, which holds urine until it is passed through the urethra.

Organs in the urinary tract for females and males.

Signs & Symptoms

  • Bladder Infection
    • Constant urge to urinate; urinating more often than usual; feeling like your bladder is still full after you pass urine
    • Burning or pain when you pass urine
    • Cloudy urine or blood in the urine
  • Acute Kidney Infection
    • Pain in one or both sides of your mid back
    • Fever and shaking chills
    • Nausea and vomiting

Note: Bladder infections are much more common than kidney infections. You can also have a UTI without symptoms.

Causes & Risk Factors

  • UTIs result when bacteria infect any part of the urinary tract. The bladder is the most common site.
  • The risk for getting a UTI is greater for:
  • Sexually active females.
  • Males and females who have had UTIs in the past
  • Anyone with a condition that doesnít allow urine to pass freely. Kidney stones and multiple sclerosis are 2 examples.


  • Drink plenty of water and other fluids everyday. Cranberry juice may help prevent bladder infections.
  • Empty your bladder as soon as you feel the urge.
  • If youíre prone to UTIs, donít take bubble baths.
  • If youíre female, wipe from front to back after using the toilet. This helps keep bacteria away from the opening of the urethra.
  • If you use a diaphragm, clean it after each use. Have your health care provider check it periodically to make sure it still fits right.


An antibiotic to treat the specific infection and pain relievers (if necessary) are the usual treatment. If you get UTIs often, your health care provider may order certain medical tests to diagnose the cause.

Questions to Ask

  • Do you have all of these symptoms of a kidney infection?
    • Fever and shaking chills
    • Pain in one or both sides of your back
    • Nausea and vomiting
  • Do you have these symptoms of a bladder infection?
    • Burning or stinging feeling when you pass urine
    • Passing urine a lot more often than usual, often in small amounts
    • Bloody or cloudy urine
    • Pain in your abdomen or over your bladder
    • Fever (sometimes)
  • Have you had more than 3 bladder infections within 6 months or more than 4 bladder infections in the same year?
  • After getting medication for a UTI from a health care provider, do symptoms not clear completely over 3 days or did the prescribed medicine give you side effects, such as a skin rash or a vaginal yeast infection?


  • Drink at least 8 glasses of water and other liquids a day.
  • Drink juice made from unsweetened cranberry juice concentrate. Take cranberry tablets (look for these at health food stores).
  • Avoid alcohol, spicy foods, and caffeine. These can irritate the bladder.
  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Check for fever twice a day; in the morning and again in the evening.
  • Take an over-the-counter medicine for pain, or take OTC medicine such as Azo, Uristat, or Cystec, which relieves pain and spasms that come with a bladder infection. {Note: Uristat helps with symptoms, but doesnít get rid of the infection. You should see your health care provider to diagnose and treat the problem.}
  • Go to the bathroom as soon as you feel the urge. Empty your bladder completely.