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STATISTICAL FACT SHEET

The following are statistics in the areas of education, employment and community access for students with low-incidence disabilities (i.e., students with sensory disabilities or those with significant support needs). For a summary of this Statistical Fact Sheet, see Outcome Data for Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities, 2006.

Baseline Statistics: Students without Disabilities

Education

An all-time high 85 percent of U.S. adults age 25 and over had completed at least high school in 2003, according to the U.S. Census Bureau - http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/censusandstatistics/a/highschool.htm confirm citation

Employment

In recent years, approximately 80% of youth without disabilities reported holding jobs at some point during high school (National Research Council, 1998).

According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2004), in 2003, the total work force was comprised of more than 2.4 million people. Of this total 18.77% of the work force were deaf or hard of hearing, 10.13% were blind or visually impaired, and 8.24% were developmentally disabled.

Community Access

More than 90% of youth without disabilities see friends outside of school at least weekly, and almost as many are invited by other youth to their social activities. About three-fourths participate in extracurricular activities, including lessons or classes outside of school, various groups sponsored by the school or community organizations, or volunteer activities (Wagner, 2003).

According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Udry, 1998), approximately 93% of adolescents without disabilities report that they "hang out" with friends at least once a week.

Spending time outdoors or playing sports is the second most frequently reported activity for most youth (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities

Education

In 1999–2000, 9% of all undergraduate students in degree-granting institutions reported having a disability that created difficulties for them as a student. Of the students with disabilities, 12% had either a visual or hearing impairment (National Center for Education Statistics, 2005).

In 1999-2000, 6.1% of students in graduate or first-professional programs reported having a hearing loss, 4.7% reported a vision loss (National Center for Education Statistics, 2005).

School completion rates for youth with hearing or visual impairments are 90% and 95%, respectively (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Twenty percent of youth with low-incidence disabilities have some trouble with functional cognitive tasks that require literacy or numeracy (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

The graduation rates of students with hearing impairments and visual impairments were approximately 65% from 1993-94 to 2000-01 (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Youth with hearing or visual impairments had among the highest rates of school completion in Cohort Two of the National Longitudinal Transition Study; 82% and 94% of the two groups, respectively, had finished high school (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Youth with hearing or visual impairments are more than twice as likely as youth with disabilities as a whole to have enrolled in a postsecondary school; approximately two-thirds have done so up to 2 years after high school. Further, they are the most likely to attend a 4-year college or university (37% and 42% respectively). Approximately 4 in 10 have enrolled in such schools, a rate four times that of youth with disabilities as a whole (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Youth with autism (21%) or mental retardation (11%) are among those most likely to have been enrolled in postsecondary vocational, business, or technical schools (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Forty-three percent of children with disabilities (ages 6-12) and 57% of youths with disabilities (ages 13-17), have more than one disability (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Half of students with visual impairments and 40% of students with hearing impairments are educated outside the regular class less than 21% of the school day (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Roughly 50% of students with mental retardation, 45% of students with multiple disabilities, and 45% of students with autism are educated outside of the regular classroom more than 60% of the school day (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Employment

Individuals with low-incidence disabilities account for 36.7% of persons receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI), each receiving a federal stipend averaging $384 per month (Social Security Administration, 2004).

Forty-seven percent of out-of-school youth with hearing impairments, 28.7% of those with visual impairments, and 27.1% of those with multiple disabilities and deafblindness worked 35 or more hours per week in 2003 (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Youth with low incidence disabilities show the lowest rates of engagement in school, work, or preparation for work shortly after high school of all disability categories (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Youth with hearing, visual, or orthopedic impairments are much more likely to have employers who are aware of their disability (51%, 64%, and 41%, respectively) (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Youth with hearing or visual impairments are much more likely to have employers who are aware of their disability than youth with learning disabilities (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

More than 80% of persons with hearing loss who are age-eligible have driving privileges, compared with fewer than 20% of youth with visual impairments (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Supported employment often was the employment goal for youth with mental retardation (38%) or autism (25%), but was not a goal for youth with visual impairments (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Approximately 30% of youth with mental retardation, autism, multiple disabilities, or deaf-blindness hold work-study jobs (Marder, Cardoso, & Wagner, 2003).

Personal-care jobs are common for youth with hearing (24%) or visual impairments (27%) (Marder, Cardoso, & Wagner, 2003).

Youth with visual impairments or autism are the most likely to work relatively few hours (Marder, Cardoso, & Wagner, 2003).

Youth with hearing or other health impairments are the most likely to earn the minimum wage or more, whereas those with visual impairments, mental retardation, or multiple disabilities are the least likely to be paid at that rate (Marder, Cardoso, & Wagner, 2003).

Community Access

In 2003, 77.5% of out-of-school youth with hearing impairments, 80.5% of out-of-school youth with visual impairments, and 76.9% of out-of-school youth with multiple disabilities and deafblindness lived with a parent or guardian (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Approximately 20% of youth with low-incidence disabilities have some trouble with communication and functioning engagements, while 1% experience major communication and functional engagement barriers (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Four percent of youth with low-incidence disabilities are challenged to perform the self-care tasks that are fundamental to independence (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

The more students' functional domains are affected by disability, the less likely they are to experience frequent friendship interactions (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Sixty-four percent and 62% of youth with hearing or visual impairments, respectively, registered to vote (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Out-of-school youth with hearing or visual impairments had among the highest rates of participation in organized community groups, and they experienced the only significant increases among the disability categories for their participation in volunteer or community service activities (Wagner, Newman, Cameto & Levine, 2005).

Youth with sensory impairments show no significant decline over time in their participation in organized community groups or volunteer activities; almost twice as many volunteer, compared with youth with disabilities as a whole. They are as likely to be registered to vote as any other category of youth (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Approximately 1% of out-of-school youth with hearing or visual impairments report having had or fathered a child (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Only 44.5% of out-of-school youth with hearing impairments, 43.4% of those with visual impairments, and 13.3% of those with multiple disabilities and deafblindness, participated in one or more community groups (Wagner, et al. 2003).

Spending time outdoors or playing sports is the second most frequently reported activity for most youth. Exceptions are youth with hearing or orthopedic impairments, or autism, for whom computer related activities are the second most common activity. Those with visual impairments (48%) or deafblindness (35%) reportedly spend most of their time doing hobbies or reading (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

Youth with hearing impairments, autism, multiple disabilities, or deaf-blindness are the least likely to be reported spending a significant amount of time on the phone with friends (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

Youth with mental retardation, multiple disabilities, deaf-blindness, autism, or emotional disturbances are less likely than others to take part in group activities such as sports teams (Wagner, 2003).

Youth with autism, multiple disabilities, and deaf-blindness have much less frequent contacts with friends (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

Overall, only 2% of youth with disabilities are reported by parents not to have any of the kinds of friendship interaction as explored in National Longitudinal Transition Study - 2. However, this rate increases to between 15% and 28% of youth with autism, multiple disabilities, or deaf-blindness (Wagner, 2003).

Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Education

National research for students who are deaf or hard of hearing indicates that the average student with a hearing loss graduates from high school with reading comprehension skills at approximately the fourth grade level (e.g., Allen, 1986; CADS, 1991; Traxler, 2000). Furthermore, approximately 20% (some 2,000 annually) of students who are deaf or hard of hearing leave school with a reading level at or below second grade (Dew, 1999).

Thirty-seven percent of youth with hearing impairments are by far the most likely to attend 2-year or 4-year colleges (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

According to findings from two of the Office of Special Education Program’s (OSEP) National Assessment studies, the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS) and National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), half or more of students with hearing impairments scored at or below the 20th percentile in letter-word identification, passage comprehension, and applied problems assessments. Their scores on the calculation assessment were closer to their same-age peers, with 33% of scores below the 20th percentile, and 31% above the 60th percentile (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Employment

56,179 individuals in the United States receive Social Security disability benefits because of deafness (Social Security Administration, 2004).

The percentage of federal workforce who is deaf has dropped from 6,207 employees in FY 1994 to 4,796 in FY 2003, for a net change of -10.66% of the total federal workforce (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2003).

There is no difference in the probability of employment between youth with learning disabilities and those with hearing impairments (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Community Access

Due to communication access issues, youth who are deaf or hard of hearing are significantly less likely than youth with other disabilities to socialize with friends (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Fifty-nine percent of youth who are deaf or hard of hearing have some trouble communicating by any means (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

The percentage of youth with hearing impairments out of school more than a year who participated in one or more community groups increased from 33.3% in 1987 to 44.5% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto & Levine, 2005).

The percentage of youth with hearing impairments living with a parent or guardian two years after high school decreased slightly from 79.2% in 1987 to 77.5% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005). However, the percentage of youth with hearing impairments living independently also decreased slightly from 15.6% in 1987 to 12.3% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

According to the National Longitudinal Transition Study – 2, communication challenges faced by youth with hearing impairments may help explain why they are significantly less likely than youth with disabilities as a whole to get together with friends frequently, a difference not observed for youth with visual impairments (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005). According to the same study, however, youth with hearing impairments are more likely to be invited to others’ social activities and to interact with others via the computer, than compared to other disability groups (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

Parents of students with hearing impairment (26.1%) reported their children spend most of their time with friends (e.g., driving around, or spending time at the mall) (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired

Education

Approximately 45% of individuals with severe visual impairment or blindness have a high school diploma, compared to 80% among fully sighted individuals. Among high school graduates, those with severe visual impairment or blindness are about as likely to have taken some college courses as those who were sighted, but are less likely to have graduated (American Foundation for the Blind, 2006).

Youth with visual impairments are the most likely to have goals related to attending a 2-year or 4-year college, compared with other disability groups (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Students with visual impairments performed similarly to their same-age peers on calculation and applied problems assessment, but approximately 35% scored below the 21st percentile in letter-word identification and passage comprehension (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Youth with visual impairments had the largest increase in participation in postsecondary education overall, and both they and youth with learning impairments surpassed other disability categories in the size of increase in participation in 2-year and 4-year colleges, giving them the highest rates of enrollment in those institutions of any category of youth (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Employment

Forty-six percent of working-age adults with vision impairments and 32% of legally blind working-age adults are employed (Kirchner, Schmeidler, & Todorov, 1999).

In 1994-95, approximately 46% of working-age adults (ages 18-69) who were visually impaired but not legally blind were employed (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005).

Approximately 55-60% of all working age visually impaired people (ages 18 to 69) are not employed. Additionally, 70% of all working age legally blind people of the same age bracket are also not employed (American Foundation for the Blind, 2006).

The percentage of the federal workforce who is blind has dropped from 2,984 employees in FY 1994 to 2,588 in FY 2003, for a net change of -.70 % of the total federal workforce (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2003).

Approximately18% of youth with visual impairments receives job training (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

According to the National Longitudinal Transition Study – 2, youth with visual impairments had the largest increase in paid employment since high school. They joined cohort 2 youth with hearing impairments in having a 62% employment rate, similar to the rate for youth with disabilities as a whole (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Irrespective of other differences in disability, functioning, and demographics, youth with visual impairments are 21 percentage points less likely to be employed currently than youth with learning disabilities; there is no difference in the probability of employment between youth with learning disabilities and those with hearing impairments (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Those with visual impairments are more likely (22%) than youth in other disability categories to receive accommodations on the job (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

People with visual impairments are eight times more likely to be employed than people with severe disabilities (64% versus 8% respectively), but they are still less likely to be employed than people without disabilities (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

Community Access

Approximately 42% of blind and severely visually impaired Americans are married, 33% are widowed, 13% are separated or divorced, and 13% have never married (American Foundation for the Blind, 2006).

Forty-five percent of parents of all youth with visual impairments believed that their children would live independently, and 30% believed their children would be financially self-sufficient (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

The percentage of youth with visual impairments out of school more than one year who participated in one or more community groups increased from 36.6% in 1987 to 43.3% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

The percentage of youth with visual impairments living with a parent or guardian two years after high school increased slightly from 76.3% in 1987 to 80.5% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

The percentage of youth with visual impairments living independently (alone, with a spouse or roommate, or in military housing or a college dormitory) decreased slightly from 15.8% in 1987 to 14.8% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Students who are Deaf-Blind

Education

Over 70% of students who are deaf-blind are either educated outside of the general classroom more than 60% of the day or in separate environments (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

According to the National Deaf-Blind Child Count Summary, on December 1, 2004 there were reportedly 9,364 students who are deaf-blind enrolled in special education programs (Petroff, 2001).

Nearly one half of youth who are deaf-blind left school without any formal communication system (Petroff, 2001).

Over time, out-of-school youth with multiple disabilities or deaf-blindness remain among the least likely to have finished high school (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Employment

Approximately one-third of the youth involved in the National Transition Follow-Up Study of Youth Identified as Deafblind: Parent Perspectives, sometimes or frequently exhibited problematic behavior, thus affecting their employment and personal relationships (Petroff, 2001).

According to the National Transition Follow-Up Study of Youth Identified as Deafblind: Parent Perspectives, the majority of youth did not receive employment services or community-based vocational training (Petroff, 2001).

Community Access

The percentage of youth with multiple disabilities or deaf-blindness living in an institution or facility decreased from 30.6% in 1987 to 5.5% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Students who are deaf-blind were reported (25.8%) to spend most of their time with friends (e.g., driving around or spending time at the mall (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

Twenty-five percent of youth who are deaf-blind reportedly never interact with friends outside of class (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

Almost two-thirds of youth with deaf-blindness had been invited by other youth to social events during the past year (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

Fifteen percent of youth who are deaf-blind participate in no forms of friendship interaction (e.g., personal visits, phone calls, invited to social activities, e-mail or chat rooms) (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

Students with Significant Support Needs

Education

Youth with multiple disabilities are the least likely to graduate with a regular diploma and least likely to have completed high school (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Youth with multiple disabilities are the least expected to attend postsecondary school (16%) (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Youth with multiple disabilities had among the lowest rates of participation in school, work, or preparation for work since leaving high school, with no notable increase over time (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Youth with mental retardation or multiple disabilities are the least likely to be out of school, consistent with their tendency to remain in high school until they reach age 21. Those who have left high school are among the least likely to have completed high school, and among completers, they are among the least likely to have graduated with a regular diploma (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Nearly three-fourths or more of students with mental retardation or multiple disabilities scored in the lowest performance range (below the 21st percentile) on the passage comprehension, letter/word identification, mathematical calculation, and applied problem assessments according to the Office of Special Education Program’s (OSEP) National Assessment studies (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

According to the Office of Special Education Program’s (OSEP) National Assessment studies, half or more of students with traumatic brain injury or autism scored below the 21st percentile on the passage comprehension, letter/word identification, mathematical calculation, and applied problem assessments (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

From 1994 to 2001, the graduation rates of both students with autism and students with multiple disabilities increased slightly to 42% (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

The graduation rate of students with mental retardation was approximately 35% from 1994 to 2001 (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

The graduation rate of students with traumatic brain injury fluctuated between 55% and 60% from 1994 to 2001 (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Despite the increasing literature in the area of transition services for students with disabilities, little research exists regarding the preparation of students with more severe disabilities to leave the school system (Kraemer & Blacher, 2001).

Over time, out-of-school youth with multiple disabilities or deaf-blindness remain among the least likely to have finished high school (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Approximately 15% of youth with mental retardation and those with multiple disabilities have pursued their education beyond high school, although virtually none have enrolled in a 4-year college. Few youth with autism (1%), multiple disabilities (1%), and no youth with mental retardation have taken classes at a 4-year college or university (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Employment

The percentage of the federal workforce who have mental retardation has dropped from 3,305 employees in FY 1994 to 2,106 in FY 2003, for a net change of -21.18 percent of the total federal workforce (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2003).

Youth with multiple disabilities were the most likely to have parents who think they "probably" or "definitely" would not get paid employment (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Unemployment is the outcome for approximately 75% of individuals with severe disabilities (LaPlante, Kennedy, Kaye, & Wenger, 1996).

Ninety-two percent of individuals with profound disabilities are unemployed (LaPlante, Kennedy, Kaye, & Wenger, 1996).

Youth with multiple disabilities did not show an increase in the likelihood of having worked for pay since leaving high school; approximately one-third had done so, the lowest rate across all disability categories (Wagner, Newman, Cameto & Levine, 2005).

Approximately 30% of youth with mental retardation, autism, multiple disabilities, or deaf-blindness hold work-study jobs (Marder, Cardoso, & Wagner, 2003; Wagner, et al. 2003).

Individuals with moderate to severe cognitive disabilities (39.1%) were participating in some type of supported employment (Revell, Wehman, Kregel, West, and Rayfield, 1994).

People with visual impairments are eight times more likely to be employed than people with severe disabilities (64% versus 8% respectively), but they are still less likely to be employed than people without disabilities (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

Unemployed people with very severe (73%) and somewhat severe (70%) disabilities are more likely to say they want to work than those who have moderate (60%) or mild disabilities (51%) (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

Less than 2 out of 10 (18%) people with mild disabilities receive at least some or all of their income from benefits and insurance payments compared to half (50%) of people with severe disabilities (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

The rates of engagement for in school, work, or preparation for work shortly after high school for youth with mental retardation or multiple disabilities are the lowest of all disability categories; yet youth with mental retardation are among the most likely to be living on their own and to be parenting. Few have tools to support that independence, including driving privileges or checking accounts (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Approximately 26% of youth with mental retardation and 27% of youth with multiple disabilities use computers (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

Community Access

Youth with multiple disabilities (52%) show one of the lowest rates of life functioning and engagement (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Youth with multiple disabilities are the least likely to take part in organized community groups or volunteer activities up to two years after leaving high school (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

Seventeen percent of youth with multiple disabilities are less likely to see friends on a regular basis compared with youth who have learning disabilities (U.S. Department of Education, 2005).

A 25-percentage-point decrease in youth with multiple disabilities living in an institution did not attain statistical significance for this small group but may suggest a trend toward greater community inclusion if it is sustained as more youth leave secondary school (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

The National Longitudinal Transition Study found that only 4% of individuals with more severe disabilities are living independently right after high school, with 24% living independently 5 years after high school (Blackorby & Wagner, 1996).

Four out of ten people with disabilities (40%) are not at all involved in their communities, almost twice the percentage for people without disabilities (21%) and almost one and one-half times the percentage for people with less severe disabilities (29%) (National Organization on Disabilities, 2000).

Fifty-one percent of people with severe disabilities are not satisfied with their experience with community involvement, compared to 44% of their less severely disabled counterparts (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

More than 60% of people with severe disabilities agree that community organizations have not reached out to them to participate, only 35% of people without disabilities say the same (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

People with somewhat or very severe disabilities (33%) are about twice as likely to live in poverty with very low household incomes of $15,000 or less than people with mild disabilities (15%), and three times as likely as people without disabilities (10%) (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

People with severe disabilities (15%) are significantly less likely to earn $50,000 or more than people with mild disabilities (23%) or without disabilities (39%) (National Organization on Disability, 2000).

The percentage of youth with multiple disabilities or deaf-blindness living with a parent or guardian in 1987 was 58.1% and this percentage increased to 76.9% in 2003 (Wanger, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

The percentage of youth with multiple disabilities or deaf-blindness living independently two years out of high school increased slightly from 1.3% in 1987 to 4.4% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Between 1987 and 2003, the following trends were seen for youth with disabilities living in an institution or facility: The percentage of youth with multiple disabilities or deaf-blindness living in an institution or facility decreased from 30.6% in 1987 to 5.5% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

The percentage of youth with mental retardation living independently 2 years out of high school increased from 4.4% in 1987 to 14.5% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

The percentage of youth with mental retardation living in an institution or facility 2 years after leaving high school decreased from 7.5% in 1987 to .5% in 2003 (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, & Levine, 2005).

Independent of other differences in functioning between them, youth with multiple disabilities are 17 percentage points less likely to see friends often than are youth with learning disabilities, and when more functional domains are affected by their disabilities, the likelihood of frequent friendship interactions falls even lower (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Youth with mental retardation and those with multiple disabilities also are among the least likely to take part in organized community groups or volunteer activities up to 2 years after leaving high school (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Youth with mental retardation or multiple disabilities are among the most likely to watch more than 6 hours of TV or videos per week (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Despite the pattern of limited social activity for youth with mental retardation and those with multiple disabilitie, about one-fourth do belong to groups and/or volunteer; about 4 in 10 are register to vote (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Forty percent or more of youth with mental retardation or autism reportedly spend most of their free time watching TV or videos (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

Youth with mental retardation or multiple disabilities are less likely than others to use computers, as are youth from lower-income households (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

25.8% of students with multiple disabilities reported to spend most of their time with friends (e.g., driving around, spending time at the mall (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003a).

Almost one-third of youth with multiple disabilities, reportedly never interact with friends outside of class (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

60% of youth with multiple disabilities or deaf-blindness rarely or never receive telephone calls (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

56% of youth with multiple disabilities had been invited by other youth to social events during the past year (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

18% of youth with multiple disabilities participate in no forms of friendship interaction (e.g., personal visits, phone calls, invited to social activities, e-mail or chat rooms) (Cadwallader & Wagner, 2003b).

The rates of criminal justice system involvement are low for youth with sensory disabilities (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005).

References

Allen, T. (1986). Patterns of academic achievement among hearing impaired students 1974 and 1983. In A. Schildroth & M. Karchmer (Eds.), Deaf children in America (pp. 161-206). San Diego, CA: Little, Brown.

American Foundation for the Blind. (2006). Blindness statistics. Retrieved January 2, 2006 from http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=15

Blackorby, J. & Wagner, M. (1996). Longitudinal post-school outcomes of youth with disabilities: Findings from the national longitudinal transition study. Exceptional Children, 62(5), 399-413.

Cadwallader, T. & Wagner, M. (2003a). The uses of free time by youth with disabilities. In Wagner, M., Cadwallader, T., & Marder, C. (with Cameto, R., Cardoso, D., Garza, N., Levine, P., & Newman, L.), Life outside the classroom for youth with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved April 25, 2006, from www.nlts2.org/pdfs/life_outside_class_ch2time.pdf

Cadawallader, T. & Wagner, M. (2003b). Interactions with friends . In Wagner, M., Cadwallader, T., & Marder, C. (with Cameto, R., Cardoso, D., Garza, N., Levine, P., & Newman, L.), Life outside the classroom for youth with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved April 25, 2006, from www.nlts2.org/pdfs/life_outside_class_ch3.pdf

Cadwallader, T., Wagner, M., & Garza, N. (2003). Participation in extracurricular activities. In Wagner, M., Cadwallader, T., & Marder, C. (with Cameto, R., Cardoso, D., Garza, N., Levine, P., & Newman, L.), Life outside the classroom for youth with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved April 27, 2006, from www.nlts2.org/pdfs/life_outside_class_ch4.pdf

Center for Assessment and Demographic Studies (CADS). (1991). Center for Assessment and Demographic Studies. Stanford Achievement Test, eighth edition: Hearing-impaired norms booklet. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University, Gallaudet Research Institute, Center for Assessment and Demographic Studies.

Dew, D. (Ed.). (1999). Serving individuals who are low-functioning deaf: Report of the Twenty-Fifth Institute on Rehabilitation Issues. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

Houtenville, Andrew J. (2006). Disability Statistics in the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, www.disabilitystatistics.org. Posted May 15, 2003. Accessed February 27, 2006.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq. Text from: United States Code Service. Available from: LexisNexis™ Congressional (Online Service). Bethesda, MD: Congressional Information Service.

Kirchner, C., Schmeidler, E., & Todorov, A. (1999). Looking at employment through a lifespan telescope: Age, health, and employment status of people with serious visual impairment. Mississippi State: Mississippi State University, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Blindness and Low Vision. Retrieved January 15, 2006 from http://www.blind.msstate.edu/employment.html

Kramer, B. R., & Blacher, J. (2001). Transition for young adults with severe mental retardation: School preparation, parent expectations, and family involvement. Mental Retardation, 39, 423-435.

Kregel, J., Wehman, P., Seyfarth, J., & Marshall, K. (1986). Community integration of youth adults with mental retardation: Transition from school to adulthood. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 21, 35-42.

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