Presuming Competence By Design • A Tutorial for Systems, Environment, Curricular, and Materials Design in Learning Systems




Bremer, C. D. (2004). Universal design in secondary and postsecondary education. Impact, 16(3).  Retrieved on the World Wide Web May 19, 2007:


Bremer, C. D., Clapper, A. T., Hitchcock, C., Hall, T., and Kachgal, M., (2002).Universal Design: A Strategy to Support Students' Access to the General Education Curriculum.  National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, Information Brief, 1(3).  Retrieved on the World Wide Web May 19, 2007:


Burgstahler, S. (2001). Universal design of instruction. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2002, from /Academics/instruction.html.


Center for Universal Design, North Carolina State University (1997). What is universal design? Retrieved Dec. 16, 2002, from


Council for Exceptional Children (1998). A curriculum every student can use: Design principles for student access. Educational Resources Information Center/Office of Special Education Programs Topical Brief. Reston, VA: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED423654). Retrieved March 23, 2005, from


Kame'enui, E. and Simmons, D. (1999). Toward Successful Inclusion of Students with Disabilities: The architecture of instruction. (ERIC/OSEP Mini Library on Adapting Curricular Materials, Vol. 1). Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.


National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (2002). Effective classroom practices. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2002, from


Shaw, S.F., Scott, S.S. & McGuire, J. (2001). Teaching college students with learning disabilities (ERIC digest No. E618). Arlington, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.  Also available at:



Textbooks on Universal Design

Council for Exceptional Children, (2005). Universal design for learning. Available at


Rose, D. and Meyer, A. (2002).  Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal Design for Learning.  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD): Alexandria, VA.



Council for Exceptional Children – open articles on Universal Design:

CEC – Professional Practice Topics and Info – Universal Design:


Orkwis, R. (1999).  Curriculum access and universal design for learning.